“My recognition of the need to look at shadow starts with a painfulness, a stoppage, an absence of the sense of well-being, and an agitation from within to feel okay again.” -- John Beebe, Integrity in Depth

Eight-Function Model

John Beebe’s Eight-Function Model

(Excerpted from “The Opposing Personality: Recognizing the Archetypal Energy” by Carol Shumate, forthcoming in Bulletin of Psychological Type)

Psychiatrist and Jungian analyst John Beebe (ENTP) proposed a pioneering theory of the sequence of the eight mental functions in 1993 at the APT conference in Huntington Beach, CA [see chart below]. His theory posits that each of our four preferred functions has its opposite function in shadow: In other words, if our first function is Extraverted Intuition (Ne), our first shadow function, the 5th, will be Introverted Intuition (Ni). His theory further hypothesizes eight archetypes corresponding to the placement of each of Jung’s eight mental processes or functions in each personality type (see chart). The Hero function (1st) is mirrored by the Opposing Persona (2nd); the Good Parent function (2nd) is mirrored by the Witch/Senex (called Critical Parent by McAlpine); the Puer/Puella or Child function (3rd) is mirrored by the Trickster (7th); and the Anima/Animus (4th) is mirrored by the Demon/Daimon (8th).

Beebe’s purpose in identifying the function archetypes was to provide a window into the unconscious—a way of recognizing when we are operating from what Jung called ‘the shadow’ by identifying the archetypal energies associated with our shadow functions. Beebe drew the names for seven of the function archetypes from Jungian psychology (which recognizes many more than eight archetypes as active in the unconscious). Beebe devised the name for the fifth function archetype himself, calling it the Opposing Personality, because it opposes the first or heroic function.

Another use for the eight-function model has been advanced by Bob McAlpine (ISTJ). McAlpine wants to use the function archetypes not only to recognize our unconscious but also to consciously develop its functions. Together, Beebe and McAlpine have devised trainings to help people: a) recognize and manage their shadow functions, and b) begin to develop all eight functions. McAlpine’s work has also investigated the relationship dynamics that occur as the functions express themselves, not just within the individual’s psyche but in interpersonal relationships. Beebe’s theory differs from that of Naomi Quenk, author of In the Grip, in that Beebe believes that much of the dysfunction Quenk attributes to the inferior (4th) function should be attributed to the unconscious functions, 5th through 8th. It should be noted that this numbering of the unconscious functions does not imply a developmental sequence.

Because the theory is still in formation, the best way to learn about it is through a Beebe/McAlpine workshop sponsored by Type Resources. Others who have worked with Beebe’s model from the beginning include Gary Hartzler, Margaret Hartzler, Leona Haas, and Linda Berens.

Chart: Beebe’s Sequence of the Eight Functions and Archetypes

Introverts

ISTJ

ISFJ

INFJ

INTJ

ISTP

ISFP

INFP

INTP

Archetypes

1st Dom

Si

Si

Ni

Ni

Ti

Fi

Fi

Ti

Hero

2nd Aux

Te

Fe

Fe

Te

Se

Se

Ne

Ne

Good Parent

3rd Ter

Fi

Ti

Ti

Fi

Ni

Ni

Si

Si

Puer/ella

4th Inf

Ne

Ne

Se

Se

Fe

Te

Te

Fe

Anima/us

5th

Se

Se

Ne

Ne

Te

Fe

Fe

Te

Oppos. Persona

6th

Ti

Fi

Fi

Ti

Si

Si

Ni

Ni

Witch/Senex*

7th

Fe

Te

Te

Fe

Ne

Ne

Se

Se

Trickster

8th

Ni

Ni

Si

Si

Fi

Ti

Ti

Fi

Demon/Daimon

Extraverts

ESTJ

ESFJ

ENFJ

ENTJ

ESTP

ESFP

ENFP

ENTP

Archetypes

1st Dom

Te

Fe

Fe

Te

Se

Se

Ne

Ne

Hero

2nd Aux

Si

Si

Ni

Ni

Ti

Fi

Fi

Ti

Good Parent

3rd Ter

Ne

Ne

Se

Se

Fe

Te

Te

Fe

Puer/ella

4th Inf

Fi

Ti

Ti

Fi

Ni

Ni

Si

Si

Anima/us

5th

Ti

Fi

Fi

Ti

Si

Si

Ni

Ni

Oppos. Persona

6th

Se

Se

Ne

Ne

Te

Fe

Fe

Te

Witch/Senex*

7th

Ni

Ni

Si

Si

Fi

Ti

Ti

Fi

Trickster

8th

Fe

Te

Te

Fe

Ne

Ne

Se

Se

Demon/Daimon

· AKA “Critical Parent” – McAlpine


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